The lemon is the most popular citrus fruit in the world at this moment – it’s origins are still mystery for researchers, but it is known to have been domesticated in India and China since ancient times. It is the fruit of a very tall tree (up to 6 meters), with alternate lanceolate leaves while the fruit, reddish when unripe becomes greenish to yellow with a same color sour flesh. Still, there are many varieties, such as “Villafranca” (with the highest rate given by United States Department of Agriculture), followed by “Eustis”, “Bearss”, “Perkin” and “Avon”.
The Arab world is most known in preparing lemon juice (lemonade) and the pickled lemons are a delicacy in South East Asia. Lemons were appreciated even since ancient times for their antimicrobial properties. 100 grams of lemon flesh contains 10% carbohydrates, 26% Calcium, 13% potassium, more than 50% vitamin C. It is necessary to state that lemon oil, often used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry, may lead to derma ties and other skin reactions especially for woodworkers, if misused. On the other hand, lemon juice cures bleaching freckles and it also helps cleaning successfully cooper-bottoms cooking pots. The juice also relives gingivitis and inflammations of the tongue. Due to its nutritious properties, lemons have many health benefits. They are widely known as diuretics, astringent and anti scorbutic. The traditional healing methods say that lemons roots can cure gonorrhea, fever or colic. The largest lemon producer remains Italy, followed by China and USA.